Créditos de imagem: Sklera and chimera.

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) may be effective in aggressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) that fail to respond to standard therapies. Data were obtained in a multicenter, observational, retrospective study. Valid data were obtained from 25 centers in 13 countries for 281 evaluable patients, with median follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 0.2-16 years). Seventy-eight percent (218 of 281) of patients had progressive forms of MS. The median EDSS score before mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells was 6.5 (range, 1.5-9). Eight deaths (2.8%; 95% CI, 1.0%-4.9%) were reported within 100 days of transplant and were considered transplant-related mortality. The 5-year probability of progression-free survival as assessed by the EDSS score was 46% (95% CI, 42%-54%), and overall survival was 93% (95% CI, 89%-96%) at 5 years. Factors associated with neurological progression after transplant were older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.05), progressive vs relapsing form of MS (HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.27-4.28), and more than 2 previous disease-modifying therapies (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10-2.47). Higher baseline EDSS score was associated with worse overall survival (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.40-2.95). In this observational study of patients with MS treated with AHSCT, almost half of them remained free from neurological progression for 5 years after transplant. Younger age, relapsing form of MS, fewer prior immunotherapies, and lower baseline EDSS score were factors associated with better outcomes. The results support the rationale for further randomized clinical trials of AHSCT for the treatment of MS.

Long-term Outcomes After Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Sclerosis.

Muraro PA, Pasquini M, Atkins HL, Bowen JD, Farge D, Fassas A, Freedman MS, Georges GE, Gualandi F, Hamerschlak N, Havrdova E1, Kimiskidis VK, Kozak T, Mancardi GL, Massacesi L, Moraes DA, Nash RA, Pavletic S, Ouyang J, Rovira M, Saiz A, Simoes B, Trnený M, Zhu L, Badoglio M, Zhong X, Sormani MP, Saccardi R.

JAMA Neurol. 2017 Apr 1;74(4):459-469. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.5867.

London, England; Milwaukee, Denver; Bethesda, Seattle, USA; Ottawa, Canada; Paris, France; Thessaloniki, Greece; Firenze and Genova, Italy; São Paulo and Ribeirão Preto, Brazil; Prague, Czech Republic; Nanjing, China; Barcelona, Spain.

(Abstract had sections edited out, but words and meaning not altered, by Dr Paulo Bittencourt on June 9th 2017)

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